Epistemology is the branch of philosophy usually described as the theory of knowledge: how do we "know" what we know and are there limits to what we can know? This article introduces epistemology's "Gettier problem." Is it accurate to say we "know" XYZ when we have reason to believe XYZ is true and it is true -- but not for the reasons we think? Here's an example, paraphrased from University of Birmingham (UK) philosopher Scott Sturgeon:
Suppose I burgle your house, find two bottles of Newcastle Brown Ale in the kitchen, drink them, and then decide to replace them before you get home. You remember purchasing the ale and have every reason to believe there will be two bottles of Newcastle Brown waiting for you at home. Your belief is justified and true. But what you think you "know" about your ale does not reflect the truth of the situation.
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